Civilian Oversight

Civilian Police Oversight in Ontario

There are three agencies that oversee different areas relating to police services.

Law Enforcement Complaints Agency (LECA)

Law Enforcement Complaints Agency (LECA) is responsible for receiving, managing and overseeing public complaints about misconduct of police officers in Ontario. As a civilian arm’s-length agency of the Ontario Ministry of the Attorney General, our decisions are independent from the Ontario government, the police, and the community.

Our goal is to provide a fair, independent, transparent and accessible and effective oversight system that will foster confidence and trust in the public complaints process and, in turn, policing.

Our office cannot investigate, recommend or lay criminal charges.

Special Investigations Unit (SIU)

The Special Investigations Unit (SIU) conducts investigations of incidents involving the police that have resulted in death, serious injury, or allegations of sexual assault. The SIU is a civilian law enforcement agency independent of the police. For more information about the SIU, please visit

The Inspectorate of Policing (IOP)

The Inspectorate of Policing (IOP) – the first of its kind in Canada – is a new arm’s-length entity established to meet the legislated mandate of the Inspector General of Policing of Ontario (IG) under the Community Safety and Policing Act, 2019.

The Inspector General and the Inspectorate of Policing will improve performance of police services, police service boards and organizations that employ special constables by:

  • Responding to public complaints concerning adequate and effective police service delivery and allegations of police board member misconduct;
  • Examining performance of police services and boards through independent inspections, investigations, monitoring and advising;
  • Identifying effective performance and, where improvements are needed, using new enforcement tools uniquely available to the Inspector General, including issuing directions and imposing measures to ensure compliance with the CSPA and its regulations;
  • Imposing measures to ensure the provision of adequate and effective policing or in cases of a policing emergency;
  • Conducting data analysis and research through the Inspectorate’s Centre of Data Intelligence and Innovation to promote evidence-based actions and improvements; and,
  • Publicly reporting on the activities of the IG.

The Inspector General has oversight of the following policing entities, to ensure their compliance with the CSPA and its regulations:

  • Municipal police services and police service boards;
  • Chiefs of police;
  • The Ontario Provincial Police (OPP), and OPP detachment boards;
  • First Nations OPP boards and First Nations police services that opt-in to the CSPA;
  • Any entity providing policing by agreement, including not-for-profit/for profit;
  • Any public sector body that may be prescribed to provide policing; and,
  • Organizations that employ special constables.

For more information on the IOP, please visit at

Civilian Police Oversight in Canada

There are a number of police oversight agencies in Canada. Please visit the individual websites to get more information about how each agency operates.


Canadian Association for Civilian Oversight of Law Enforcement
Military Police Complaints Commission
Civilian Review and Complaints Commission for the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (CRCC)​


Alberta Serious Incident Response Team (ASIRT)
Edmonton Police Commission
Calgary Police Commission
Alberta Law Enforcement Review Board (LERB)

British Columbia

Independent Investigations Office of BC
Office of the Police Complaint Commissioner


Independent Investigations Unit​​
Law Enforcement Review Agency (LERA)

New Brunswick

New Brunswick Police Commission

Newfoundland & Labrador

Royal Newfoundland Constabulary Public Complaints Commission

Nova Scotia

Office of the Police Complaints Commissioner
Serious Incident Response Team

Prince Edward Island

Office of the Police Commissioner


Système Déontologique Policier (Police Ethics System)


Public Complaints Commission

Civilian Police Oversight in the United States of America

National Association of Civilian Oversight of Law Enforcement

Albany, NY

Citizens’ Police Review Board 

Albuquerque, NM

Independent Review Office of the Police Oversight

Atlanta, GA

Citizen Review Board

Austin, TX

Office of the Police Monitor

Berkeley, CA

Police Review Commission

Chicago, IL

Independent Police Review Authority

Eugene, OR

Office of the Police Auditor​
Civilian Review Board

Los Angeles, CA

Los Angeles Police Commission
Office of the Inspector General

New Orleans, LA

Office of the Independent Police Monitor

New York, NY

Civilian Complaint Review Board

Portland, OR

Portland City Auditor’s Independent Police Review

San Diego, CA

Citizens’ Law Enforcement Review Board

San Francisco, CA

Department of Police Accountability​

Civilian Police Oversight in Europe

England and Wales

Independent Police Complaints Commission (IPCC)


Police Investigations and Review Commissioner

Northern Ireland

Police Ombudsman for Northern Ireland


Garda Síochána Ombudsman Commission

Civilian Police Oversight in​ Oceania

New Zealand

Independent Police Conduct Authority


Australian Commission for Law Enforcement Integrity
Commonwealth Ombudsman
Independent Commission Against Corruption (NSW)
Crime and Misconduct Commission​ (Queensland)

Civilian Police Oversight in Asia

Hong Kong

Complaints Authority Against Police Officers of the Hong Kong Police Force